April 15, 2018 / by Matthew Kvalheim / In news

### Differentiation under the integral sign

In calculus, Leibniz's rule for differentiation under the integral sign states that, modulo precise regularity assumptions, $$\frac{d}{dx} \int_{a(x)}^{b(x)} f(x,t)\, dt = f(x,b(x))b'(x) - f(x,a(x))a'(x) + \int_{a(x)}^{b(x)} \frac{\partial}{\partial x}f(x,t)\, dt.$$ There is a nice generalization of this result to the case of integrating a time-dependent differential $k$-form over a time-varying $k$-submanifold with boundary.

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